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Differentiated Instructional Strategies for Science, Grades K-8
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Differentiated Instructional Strategies for Science, Grades K-8



February 2008 | 200 pages | Corwin
Science learning has not always kept pace with demands for improvement in reading and math test scores, but adaptable thinking and learning in science are essential competencies for learners who will need to keep up with accelerating demands in high school, college, and the workplace for technological knowledge and skills. Using the accessible and proven instructional strategies introduced in Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn't Fit All (Corwin, 2002), authors Gayle Gregory and Elizabeth Hammerman provide an expanded approach to creating science classrooms where learners thrive and succeed.

Topics include:

- Encouraging inquiry, trust, and relaxed alertness for learners

- Creating hands-on performance tasks and rubrics applicable to real life settings

- Using data to assess learner knowledge and achievement gaps against grade-level standards

-Continuous assessment before, during, and after learning

- Methods for engaging emerging learners, developing learners, and fluent learners at all stages of development

- Ready-to-use strategies for inquiry-based learning, inexpensive hands-on learning, problem-based learning, cooperative learning, focus and sponge activities, graphic organizers, choice boards, and more

- Management and pacing strategies for the differentiated science classroom.

A generous collection of templates, planners, checklists, rubrics, and graphic organizers will be included in the text. Standards-based sample lessons will be offered for grades K-8.


 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
Introduction
Differentiated Instruction

 
Teaching Matters

 
Clarifying Instructional Goals

 
Differentiated Instruction in Action

 
 
Part I. Effective Science Education
 
1. Creating a Climate for Differentiated Instruction
A Climate for Learning

 
A Safe and Enriched Environment

 
Internet Resources Related to Health and Safety

 
Natural Learning Systems

 
Emotional Learning System

 
Social Learning System

 
Physical Learning System

 
Cognitive Learning System

 
Reflective Learning System

 
Learning Systems With Links to National Standards

 
A Planning Guide for Differentiated Instruction

 
Phases of the Planning Guide

 
 
2. Scientific and Technological Literacy for the Twenty-First Century
Scientific Literacy

 
Science Education Standards

 
Unifying Concepts and Processes

 
Process and Thinking Skills in K-8 Science

 
Dispositions That Underlie Science

 
Dimensions of Learning

 
Technological Literacy

 
Views of Technology

 
Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

 
 
3. Knowing the Learner
Multicultural Education

 
Multicultural Education in Science

 
Gender Equity

 
Gender Equity in Science

 
Learning Modalities

 
Learning and Thinking Styles

 
Kolb's Learning Styles

 
McCarthy's 4MAT System

 
Gregorc's Thinking Styles

 
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

 
Eight Intelligences Linked to Science

 
Sternberg's View of Intelligence

 
Learning Activities Linked to Intelligences

 
Strategies for PreAssessment

 
Assessing Prior Knowledge

 
Addressing Misconceptions

 
Pretest of Concepts

 
Pretest of Skills

 
 
Part II. Designing Differentiated Instruction
 
4. Methods and Effective Practices for Increasing Student Achievement
Methods for Teaching and Learning Science

 
The Roles of Teachers and Student in Methods

 
Research-Based Effective Practices

 
Strategies Linked to Brain Research and Classroom Practices

 
Science Notebooks as Tools for Learning

 
Lab Reports

 
Grouping

 
Cooperative Learning

 
Adjustable Assignments

 
Curriculum Compacting

 
 
5. Strategies for Activating and Engaging
Strategies for Engagement

 
K-W-L Charts

 
Discrepant Events

 
School Site Investigations

 
Informal Learning Environments

 
Video Clips

 
Guest Speakers

 
Displays

 
Literature in Science

 
Case Studies

 
 
6. Strategies for Acquiring and Exploring
Inquiry Defined

 
Traditional Versus Inquiry-Based Classrooms

 
Factors That Support Inquiry and Differentiated Instruction in Science

 
Environments That Support Inquiry-Based Teaching and Learning

 
Classroom Features

 
Equipment and Supplies

 
Management Strategies

 
Problem-Based Learning

 
Examples of PBL Topics

 
Projects

 
Models

 
Booklets, Posters, and Brochures

 
Projects at the Primary, Intermediate, and Middle Grade Levels

 
Science Fair Projects

 
Product Testing and Survey Research

 
Science and Technological Design

 
Presentations

 
Stations

 
Examples of Stations at the Primary Grade Level

 
Example of Stations at the Intermediate Grade Level

 
Example of Stations at the Middle Grade Level

 
Centers

 
Structured Centers

 
Exploratory Centers

 
Relearning Centers

 
Assessment for Stations and Centers

 
Choice Boards

 
Choice Boards for a Primary Level Study of Animals

 
Contracts

 
Contract for Rocks and Minerals

 
Choice Board for Activities

 
Computer-Based Technologies as Tools for Learning

 
 
7. Strategies for Explaining, Applying, and Creating Meaning
Group Discussion

 
Questions for Thinking and Problem Solving

 
Discussion Starters

 
Nonlinguistic Representations for K-8 Science

 
Charts

 
Data Tables and Graphs

 
Creating Graphs

 
Bar Graphs

 
Line Graphs

 
Circle Graphs

 
Six Types of Graphic Organizers

 
Four-Corner Organizer

 
 
8. Strategies for Elaborating and Extending Learning
Beyond the Basics

 
Games That Enhance Learning

 
Cubing

 
Cubing With Questions About the Moon

 
Jigsaw

 
Analogies and Similes

 
Analogies

 
Similes

 
Similes for a Middle Grade Unit on Cells

 
 
9. Strategies for Assessing and Evaluating Learning
Assessment and Evaluation

 
Assessment Strategies in the Science Classroom

 
Performance Tasks for Learning and Assessment

 
Creating Rubrics for Teacher Assessment and Self-Assessment

 
Holistic Rubrics

 
Generalized Rubrics

 
Analytic Rubrics

 
Planning Differentiated Instruction: The Key to Success

 
Considerations, Resources, and Strategies for Differentiating Instruction in Science

 
 
References
 
Index

"Teachers will find techniques to apply in the classroom immediately. The examples are user friendly and easy to understand. There is little doubt that using these strategies will enhance any science classroom."

Jennifer Linrud Sinsel, Fifth-Grade Science Teacher
Wichita Collegiate School, KS

"This book addresses a real area of need and contains an abundant set of strategies."

Susan Koba, Educational Consultant

"This is an excellent sourcebook for science teachers who are looking for strategies to engage diverse learners. The reader can look for a specific topic and find not only support for the strategies but also specific examples of the teaching tools. The charts, strategies, graphics, and rubrics are reader-friendly!"

Phyllis Milne, Associate Director of School Administration
York County School Division, Yorktown, VA

"The book contains a lot of information about national science standards and multiple learning styles, plus good sample units in science and good suggestions for Web sites. The authors are great science teachers who believe wholly in engaging students in the wonder of the natural world."

Marcia LeCompte, Intermediate/MultiageTeacher
Klondike Elementary School, West Lafayette, IN

"The book provides very useful information for implementing differentiated instruction. Its research base plus concrete and useable examples mixes the theory with the practical. Teachers will find this book valuable."

Mandy Frantti, Science Teacher
Munising High School, MI

“An impressively comprehensive collection of student-centered, research-based classroom practices in one slim, well-organized volume. This book would be a valuable resource to teachers in any setting. Preservice teachers are likely to keep it long after the class has ended to revisit management topics such as organizing a science notebook and creating cooperative groups, as well as to use or adapt the science-interest inventory and organizers for explaining and creating meaning. Districts will benefit from the book’s focus on process skills and pedagogy as well as the integration of 21st-century literacy standards with the science content standards. Science specialists, gifted and talented resource teachers, and special educators will all appreciate the book’s approach to high expectations for students, thinking and problem solving, and authentic assessment. The book would also be an excellent book study as part of the development of professional learning communities.”

Teacher Education Materials (TE-MAT) Project
Key features
  • Prepares learners to adapt and adjust to the accelerating pace of change in science and technology
  • Aligned with national curriculum standards for science knowledge and skills
  • Includes a generous collection of templates, planners, checklists, rubrics, and graphic organizers
  • Features sample lessons for grades K–8
  • Provides instructional and assessment strategies for emerging learners, developing learners, and fluent learners at all stages of development
  • By the author of Corwin's best-selling Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn't Fit All
  • Includes a CD-ROM with reproducibles for classroom instruction

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