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Brain-Compatible Classrooms
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Brain-Compatible Classrooms

Third Edition
Edited by:


© 2009 | 248 pages | Corwin

"An excellent guide for new and veteran teachers who are looking to empower students through brain-compatible lessons."
—Heather Vaughn, Early Childhood Program Coordinator
Albuquerque Public Schools, NM

"A fine, useful update of Fogarty's long-time search for appropriate practical classroom applications of cognitive neuroscience research."
—Robert Sylwester, Emeritus Professor of Education, University of Oregon
Author, The Adolescent Brain

Use the latest findings in brain research to build high-achievement classrooms!

In recent years, much attention has been paid to the research findings on how the brain functions and how that understanding can be used to improve instruction and learning for all students. Robin Fogarty helps educators better understand and utilize the key discoveries in brain research and presents brain-friendly, practical strategies for differentiating learning.

Summarizing research from noted theorists such as Arthur L. Costa, Robert J. Marzano, and Daniel Goleman, this updated edition has been reorganized into three parts for a more comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain science and effective classroom practice. Chapters cover:

  • An introduction to the brain and how it works, including gender differences and how they affect learning
  • Application of brain research findings to learning principles, with compelling implications for the classroom
  • The brain-mind connection and how cognitive science and brain science complement each other
  • A four-corner paradigm for quality teaching: setting the climate for learning, using brain-based teaching skills, putting it all into practice, and receiving student feedback

Inspiring and insightful, the third edition of Brain-Compatible Classrooms offers a highly relevant, holistic model for applying brain research in the classroom.

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Introduction
 
Part I. Physiology and Brain Science
 
1. Brain Science
The Brain Is the Universe Within  
How to Be a Critical Consumer of Research on the Brain and Learning  
Just the Facts! What Are the Facts About the Brain?  
Macroview: A Look at the Exterior of the Human Brain  
Geography of the Human Brain (Topography)  
Three Views of the Brain  
Top-to-Bottom View  
Front-to-Back View  
Left-to-Right View  
How Has the Brain Evolved?  
Microview: A Look at the Interior of the Human Brain  
Brain Imaging: How We Know What We Know  
How the Brain Works  
Neurotransmitters  
Differences Between Males and Females  
 
Part II. Principles for Teaching and Learning
 
2. Principles of the Brain and Learning
The Bridge Between Brain Science and Cognitive Science  
The Brain Principles and the Four-Corner Framework  
Twelve Brain Principles of Caine and Caine  
1. Learning Is Enhanced by Challenge and Inhibited by Threat  
2. Emotions Are Critical to Patterning  
3. Learning Involves Both Focused Attention and Peripheral Perception  
4. The Brain Has a Spatial Memory System and a Set of Systems for Rote Learning  
5. The Brain Processes Parts and Wholes Simultaneously  
6. Learning Engages the Entire Physiology  
7. The Brain Is a Parallel Processor  
8. Learning Is Embedded in Natural and Social Settings  
9. Each Brain Is Unique  
10. The Search for Meaning Is Innate  
11. The Search for Meaning Occurs Through Patterning  
12. Learning Always Involves Conscious and Unconscious Processes  
It's All About Learning  
 
3. Cognitive Science: The Brain Is on My Mind
Brain Science and Cognitive Science  
Nature Versus Nurture (Heredity Versus Environment)  
Enriched Environments  
Intelligence as a Function of Experience  
Windows of Opportunity  
Nutrition-Cognition Connection  
Care and Feeding of the Brain  
Abuses and Addictions  
New Conclusions  
Emotions and the Intellect  
Safe Climate  
Threat  
Challenge  
The Brain and the Mind  
Brain Versus Mind  
Theories of the Intellect  
General Intelligence Theory: Spearman  
Theory of Cognitive Modifiability: Feuerstein  
Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Gardner  
Successful Intelligence: Sternberg  
Learnable Intelligence: Perkins  
Intelligent Behaviors or Habits of Mind: Costa and Kallick  
Emotional Intelligence: Goleman  
Moral Intelligence: Coles  
Memory, Learning, and the Human Brain  
Memory Metaphor  
It's on My Screen  
It's on My Desktop  
It's on My Menu  
It's on My Hard Drive  
Types of Memory Systems  
Short-Term Memory  
Long-Term Memory  
Episodic, Procedural, Conditional, and Emotional Memory  
Memory Lane: Semantic, Episodic, Emotional, Procedural, and Automatic  
Declarative (Explicity) and Procedural (Implicit) Memory  
Learning Through Patterns and Chunking  
It's All About Teaching  
 
Part III. Brain-Friendly Strategies
 
4. Strategies for Brain-Compatible Classrooms
The Four-Corner Framework  
Brain-Compatible Classroom  
Teaching FOR Thinking: Setting the Climate  
Research Base - Physiology, Emotions, Environment  
Principles of Brain-Compatible Learning  
Implications for Learning  
Implications for Teaching: Satisfactory  
Teaching OF Thinking: Instructing Skills and Standards of Learning  
Research Base - Brain, Mind, Intellect  
Principles of Brain-Compatible Learning  
Implications for Learning  
Implications for Teaching: Good  
Teaching WITH Thinking: Structuring Interactions  
Research Base - Active Learning/Constructivist  
Principles of Brain-Compatible Learning  
Implications for Learning  
Implications for Teaching: Excellent  
Teaching ABOUT Thinking: Reflecting Metacognitively  
Research Base - Deep Understanding/Transfer  
Principles of Brain-Compatible Learning  
Implications for Learning  
Implications for Teaching: Superior  
Definition and Description of Brain-Compatible Classrooms  
Research on Teacher Quality  
What Teachers Say  
What Experts Say  
What Kids Say  
A Framework for Quality Revisited  
 
5. Setting the Climate for Thinking
Brainwave #1: Emotions - Goleman/LeDeux/Coles  
Braindrops: Strategies  
Threat Alerts the Body  
Challenge Engages the Intellect  
Brainworks: Activities  
People Search  
Fat/Skinny Questions  
The Human Graph  
Brainwave #2: Enriched Environment - Diamond/Conyers and Wilson  
Brainstorms: Application  
Braindrops: Strategies  
Organizational Enrichments  
Sensory Enrichments  
Brainworks: Activities  
Four Corners  
Brainstorms: Application  
 
6. Teaching the Skills of Thinking
Brainwave #3: Microskills and Macroskills - Marzano/McTighe  
Braindrops: Strategies  
Microskills  
Macroskills  
Brainworks: Activities  
Microskill Lesson - Analysis for Bias  
Macroskill Lesson - Problem Solving  
Brainstorms: Applications  
Brainwave #4: Development of Skills and Concepts - Posner and Keele/Csikszentmihalyi  
Braindrops: Strategies  
Basic/Apprentice  
Advanced/Master  
Brainworks: Activities  
Basic/Apprentice  
Advanced/Master  
Brainstorms: Applications  
 
7. Structuring the Interaction With Thinking
Brainwave #5: Active Learning - Vygotsky/Ausbel  
Braindrops: Strategies  
Teacher Decisions for Cooperative Groups  
BUILD Components/Cooperative Strategies  
Graphic Organizers  
Brainworks: Activities  
Dealing With Paradox  
Brainstorms: Application  
Brainwave #6: Experiential Learning  
Braindops: Strategies  
Multiple Intelligences  
Integrated Curriculum  
Brainworks: Activities  
Curriculum Corners  
Brainstorms: Applications  
 
8. Thinking About Thinking
Brainwave #7: Reflection  
Braindrops: Strategies  
Making Meaning  
Transfer of Learning  
Brainworks: Activities  
Transfer Tales  
Brainstorms: Applications  
Brainwave #8: Assessment  
Braindrops: Strategies  
Traditional Assessments  
Dynamic Assessments  
Brainworks: Activities  
Folk Portfolio  
Brainstorms: Application  
 
Appendix A: Suggested Videos to Illustrate the Four-Corner Framework
 
Appendix B: The Brain
 
Glossary
 
References and Suggested Readings
 
Index

"A fine, useful update of Fogarty's long-time search for appropriate practical classroom applications of cognitive neuroscience research."

Robert Sylwester, Emeritus Professor of Education, University of Oregon
Author, The Adolescent Brain

"An excellent guide and tool for new and veteran teachers who are looking to empower students through brain-compatible lessons."

Heather Vaughn, Early Childhood Program Coordinator
Albuquerque Public Schools, NM

"Relevant and applicable for teachers."

Sue Teele, Associate Dean
University of California-Riverside Extension Program

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