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Assessing Teacher Dispositions

Assessing Teacher Dispositions
Five Standards-Based Steps to Valid Measurement Using the DAATS Model

Foreword by Richard C. Kunkel

May 2007 | 296 pages | Corwin

"There is a vitally important link between teacher preparation and the performance of those teachers and their students. Assessing Teacher Competency and Assessing Teacher Dispositions provide a strong underpinning to improve teacher competencies in both the cognitive and affective domains in ways that we can hope will endure post-licensure."
—From the Foreword by Richard C. Kunkel

"Well researched and standards based, with activities, worksheets, definitions, and rubrics. Addresses a topic that has been a mystery to assessment gurus."
—Marilyn K. Troupe, Director
Division of Educator Preparation, Kentucky Education Professional Standards Board

At last, a step-by-step guide for assessing teacher dispositions that addresses national accreditation standards.

While school leaders have long sought a definitive tool for assessing teacher affect and dispositions, a practical method for measurement has proven elusive—until now.

Assessing Teacher Dispositions presents a conceptual framework that helps educators understand what "appropriate dispositions" are, why it is important to measure them, and how to implement an assessment process in their schools and districts.

This indispensable companion to Assessing Teacher Competency introduces the authors' research-based five-step DAATS model, combining user-friendly definitions and guiding questions with an examination of assessment design, planning, instrument development, decision making, and data management. Linked to national standards for best practice set by NCATE, INTASC, and NBPTS, the DAATS approach offers:

  • A step-by-step implementation sequence with worksheets and training activities
  • Examples from preservice and inservice settings
  • A comprehensive assessment system when used with the CAATS model for assessing teacher competency (knowledge and skills)

This groundbreaking text offers a field-tested, valid, and reliable process for dispositions assessment that is ideal for schools of education, teacher induction programs, and preservice and inservice training.

List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Boxes
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
Foreword by Richard C. Kunkel
About the Authors
1. What Are Dispositions and Why Should We Measure Them?
What This Chapter Is About  
The Importance of Measuring Dispositions  
The Challenge  
What Are Standards-Based Dispositions?  
Hierarchical Relationships Among Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions  
Remembering Bloom  
Dispositions and Accreditation Requirements: Requirements and Definitions  
Measuring Dispositions: Sources of Confusion  
Measuring Dispositions: Morals, Ethics, or Standards Based?  
Different Construct, Different Assessments, Similar Assessment Design Process  
Wrap Up  
Activity 1.1: Questions for Exploration  
Activity 1.2: What Have You Noticed?  
Activity 1.3: Assessment Belief Scale  
Activity 1.4: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Objectives and Assessments  
2. Methods for Assessing Dispositions
What This Chapter Is About  
A Conceptual Framework for Measuring Dispositions  
Measuring Teacher Dispositions: The State of the Art  
Back to Basics: Bloom and Krathwhol  
Available Methods for Measuring Dispositions or Affect  
The Importance of Inference in Measuring Dispositions  
Wrap Up  
Activity 2.1: Questions for Exploration  
Activity 2.2: Bloom and the INTASC Principles  
Activity 2.3: Field Work  
Activity 2.4: Review Your Feelings  
3. DAATS Step 1: Assessment Design Inputs
Where We Have Been So Far  
What This Chapter Is About  
Why Are Purpose, Use, Propositions, and Content So Important?  
DAATS Step 1A: Define the Purpose(s) and Use(s) of the System  
DAATS Step 1B: Define the Propositions or Principles That Guide the System  
DAATS Step 1C: Define the Conceptual Framework or Content of the System  
DAATS Step 1D: Review Local Factors That Impact the System  
Wrap Up  
Worksheet 3.1: Purpose, Use, Propositions, Content, and Context Checksheet  
Worksheet 3.2: Purpose, Use, Content, Draft  
Worksheet 3.3: Propositions  
Worksheet 3.4: Contextual Analysis  
4. DAATS Step 2: Planning With a Continuing Eye on Valid Assessment Decisions
Where We Have Been So Far  
What This Chapter Is About  
DAATS Step 2A: Analyze Standards and Indicators  
All Those Indicators  
Why Bother?  
DAATS Step 2B: Visualize the Teacher Demonstrating the Affective Targets  
DAATS Step 2C: Select Assessment Methods at Different Levels of Inference  
DAATS Step 2D: Build an Assessment Framework Correlating Standards and Methods  
Wrap Up  
Worksheet 4.1: Organizing for Alignment (Version 1)  
Worksheet 4.2: Organizing for Alignment (Version 2)  
Worksheet 4.3: Visualizing the Dispositional Statements  
Worksheet 4.4: Selecting Assessment Methods for INTASC Indicators  
Worksheet 4.5: Assessment Methods for INTASC Indicators: Blueprint  
Worksheet 4.6: Cost/Benefit and Coverage Analysis of Assessment Methods  
5. DAATS Step 3: Instrument Development
Where We Have Been So Far  
What This Chapter Is About  
DAATS Step 3A: Draft items for Each Instrument  
Thurstone Agreement Scales  
Questionnaires, Interviews, and Focus Groups  
Observed Performance  
Thematic Apperception Tests or Situation Reflection Assessment  
DAATS Step 3B: Review Items for Applicability to Values, Domain Coverage, Job Relevance  
Wrap Up  
Worksheet 5.1: Creating Scales  
Worksheet 5.2: Creating Questionnaires, Interviews, or K-12 Focus Group Protocols  
Worksheet 5.3: Creating an Affective Behaviour Checklist  
Worksheet 5.4: Creating an Affective Behaviour Rating Scale  
Worksheet 5.5: Creating a Tally Sheet for Affective Observation  
Worksheet 5.6: Checklist for Reviewing Scale Drafts  
Worksheet 5.7: Review Sheets for Questionnaires and Interviews  
Worksheet 5.8: Review Sheets for K-12 Focus Group Protocols  
Worksheet 5.9: Checklist for Reviewing Observations and Behavioral Checklists  
Worksheet 5.10: Coverage Check  
Worksheet 5.11: Rating Form for Stakeholder Review  
6. DAATS Step 4: Decision Making and Data Management
Where We Have Been So Far  
What This Chapter Is About  
DAATS Step 4A: Develop Scoring Rubrics  
Dichotomous Response Scoring Keys  
Rating Scale Rubrics  
DAATS Step 4B: Determine How Data Will Be Combined and Used  
Need for Shared Data  
Data Storage  
Data Aggregation  
Maximizing the Utility of the Data for Decision Making  
DAATS Step 4C: Develop Implementation Procedures and Materials  
Preponderance of the Evidence vs. Cut Scores  
Advising and Due Process  
Scoring Procedures  
Wrap Up  
Worksheet #6.1: Explanation of Dichotomous Scoring Decisions  
Worksheet #6.2: Rubric Design  
Worksheet #6.3: Sample Format for Candidate/Teacher Tracking Form  
Worksheet #6.4: Format for Data Aggregation  
Worksheet #6.5: Sample Disposition Event Report  
Worksheet #6.6: Management Plan  
7. DAATS Step 5: Credible Data
Where We Have Been So Far  
What This Chapter Is About  
What Is Psychometric Integrity and Why Do We Have to Worry About It?  
DAATS Step 5A: Create a Plan to Provide Evidence of Validity, Reliability, Fairness, and Utility  
Elements of a Plan  
Element 7.1: Purpose and Use  
Element 7.2: Construct Measured  
Element 7.3: Interpretation and Reporting of Scores  
Element 7.4: Assessment Specifications and Content Map  
Element 7.5: Assessor/Rater Selection and Training Procedures  
Element 7.6: Analysis Methodology  
Element 7.7: External Review Personnel and Methodology  
Element 7.8: Evidence of Validity, Reliability, and Fairness (VRF)  
Psychometric Evidence Collected Already  
Next Steps in Collecting Evidence of Validity, Reliability, and Fairness  
Future Studies  
DAATS Step 5B: Implement the Plan Conscientiously  
Wrap Up  
Worksheets and Examples  
Worksheet 7.1: Assessment Specifications  
Worksheet 7.2: Analysis of Appropriateness of Decisions for Teacher Failures  
Worksheet 7.3: Analysis of Rehire Data  
Worksheet 7.4: Program Improvement Record  
Worksheet 7.5: Expert Rescoring  
Worksheet 7.6: Fairness Review  
Worksheet 7.7: Analysis of Remediation Efforts and EO Impact  
Worksheet 7.8: Psychometric Plan Format  
Example 1: Logistic Ruler for Content Validity  
Example 2: Computation of the Lawshe (1975) Content Validity Ratio  
Example 3: Disparate Impact Analysis  
Example 4: Computation of Cohen's Kappa (1960) for Inter-rater Reliability  
Example 5: Two Pearson Correlation Coefficients and Scatterplots: Disposition Scores Correlated with PRAXIS and Portfolio Scores  
Example 6: Spearman Correlation Coefficient and Scatterplot: Disposition Scores Correlated With Principal Ratings  
Example 7: Correlation Matrix and Scatterplots Knowledge, Impact, Dispositions, Skills (KIDS)  
Example 8: T-Test Comparing Dispositions of Mathematics and Science Teachers  
Example 9: DIF Analysis for Programs  
8. Using Teacher Scores for Continuous Improvement
What This Chapter Is About  
Reasons Why We Use the Rasch Model  
The Classical Approach  
A Quick Overview of Where Rasch Fits Into the Grand Scheme of IRT Models  
Rasch: The Basics  
Getting Started  
Differences That Item Writers Make  
Guttman Scaling  
A Sample Rasch Ruler  
From Pictures to Numbers  
The Fit Statistic  
Gain Scores " Real or Imagined'  
Ratings and Raters  
Learning More About Rasch  
Wrap Up  
Activity #1: Decision-Making Tool for Measurement  
9. Legal Integrity
What This Chapter Is About  
Why Not Portfolios?  
Why the Pied Piper?  
What IF?? A Legal Scenario: Mary Beth JoAnne Sues XYZ University  
MBJ Helps Us to Understand the Convergency of Psychometrics and Legal Requirements  
Background Facts  
Scenario #1  
Scenarios #2, 3, and 4  
Psychometric Issues and Legal Challenges in the Real World  
Legal Issues and Precedents  
Three Landmark Dispositions Cases in Two Years  
Tide Changing in NCATE  
Standards Are the Vanguard!  
MBJ Revisited  
End Note  
Resource I. DAATS Steps and Worksheets
Resource II. INTASC Disposition Indicators

"The text has been well researched, is standards-based, and includes activities, worksheets, definitions, and rubrics. It addresses a topic that has been a mystery to assessment gurus."

Marilyn K. Troupe, Director, Division of Educator Preparation
Kentucky Education Professional Standards Board

“We have all been through statistics classes and measurement classes, but this text actually helps us apply measurement ideas to the concept of dispositions. It should be extremely helpful to education faculty as well as to their liberal arts and science counterparts who often do not understand the concept of dispositions or why they are important and need to be measured or how one even begins to develop an assessment system that includes such measurements.”

Martha Gage, Director of Teacher Education and Licensure
Kansas State Department of Education

"School leaders will find an important, key tool to assessing teacher dispositions. It's been field-tested, so it isn't just theory. An essential guide."

California Bookwatch, August 2007

"This book is chock full of worksheets, assessment design techniques, staff discussion and training activities, and a variety of examples as to how the above can be used for pre-and in-service settings, with or without a statistical focus. This is not a book written for the average consumer, but rather for teacher educators, assessment designers, and K-12 school administrators and staff developers. From an instructor’s perspective, sections of the text would be excellent as an introduction to quantitative research methods for the social sciences."

Teachers College Record, August 2008
Key features
  • For schools of education, teacher induction programs, and school districts 
  • Teacher dispositions (along with teacher knowledge and skills) is the third component that defines the standards of best practice set by NCATE, INTASC, and NBPTS
  • The 5-step DAATS model for measuring teacher dispositions is research based and field tested
  • Presented in a step-by-step sequence with worksheets, training activities, and examples from both pre-service and in-service settings
  • Can be used on its own or in conjunction with the CAATS model for assessing teacher competency (knowledge and skills) as part of a comprehensive assessment system

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ISBN: 9781412953689
ISBN: 9781412953672

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