Location: United States |  Change Location
Male flipping through Corwin book

Hands-on, Practical Guidance for Educators

From math, literacy, equity, multilingual learners, and SEL, to assessment, school counseling, and education leadership, our books are research-based and authored by experts on topics most relevant to what educators are facing today.



Tier 3 of the RTI Model

Problem Solving Through a Case Study Approach

Addressing both academic and behavioral challenges, this book offers RTI teams specific steps for conducting comprehensive evaluations of students in tier 3 of the RTI model.

Full description

Product Details
  • Grade Level: PreK-12, Elementary, Secondary
  • ISBN: 9781412953313
  • Published By: Corwin
  • Year: 2009
  • Page Count: 248
  • Publication date: October 07, 2009

Price: $41.95

Price: $41.95
Volume Discounts applied in Shopping Cart

For Instructors

Request Review Copy

When you select 'request review copy', you will be redirected to Sage Publishing (our parent site) to process your request.



"This book offers critical, practical, coherent, comprehensive, and research-based information for schools and districts implementing an RTI framework of intervention. It maps a seamless process of support that enables school psychologists and school teams to provide tiered interventions to increase student achievement."
—Jane Wagmeister, Director of Curriculum, Instruction, and Continuous Improvement, RTI Co-Chair Task Force
Ventura County Office of Education

Identify students' learning needs and make appropriate decisions regarding instruction and intervention!

Response to Intervention (RTI) is a three-tiered framework that helps all students by providing targeted interventions at increasing levels of intensity. This detailed guide to tier 3 of the RTI model provides school psychologists and RTI teams with a case study approach to conducting intensive, comprehensive student evaluations.

With step-by-step guidelines for Grades K–12, this resource demonstrates how to develop a specific case study for students who are struggling in the general classroom. Focusing exclusively on the third tier, the book:

  • Provides guidance on problem identification and analysis, progress monitoring, selection of research-based interventions, and evaluation of case study outcomes
  • Addresses both academic and behavioral challenges, including mental health issues
  • Shows how school psychologists can collaborate with other members of the RTI team
  • Provides tools for assessment and for tracking progress

Tier 3 of the RTI Model guides school psychologists through the involved, in-depth process of building a case study that identifies student needs and helps educators determine the best way to educate students with learning challenges.

Key features

• A guide to Tier Three of the Response to Intervention model for identifying and addressing learning disabilities – identifying disabilities and required services
• A guide to conducting case studies of students who were unsuccessful in the general classroom (Tier Two of the model)
• Concrete guidelines for implementation provided
• A rubric provided for evaluating implementation


Sawyer Hunley photo

Sawyer Hunley

Sawyer Hunley is an associate professor, the coordinator of the School Psychology Program, and a Learning Teaching Fellow at the University of Dayton. She is chair of the National Certification Board for the National Association of School Psychologists, and was instrumental in revising the procedure for obtaining the National Credential of School Psychologists (NCSP). Hunley has served as a member of the Program Approval Board for the National Association of School Psychologists, and has participated in the writing of the last three revisions of the NASP Standards. Her professional and research interests include systems change for K-12 and higher education. Her publications and presentations have focused on the nature of the changing field of school psychology, data-based decision making, and the relationship between learning space and teaching/learning. She has over twenty years of experience as a school psychologist practitioner, supervisor, and faculty member.
Kathy McNamara photo

Kathy McNamara

Kathy McNamara is a professor of psychology at Cleveland State University, where she directs the School Psychology Specialist degree program. She currently serves as chair of the Ethics and Professional Practices Committee of the National Association of School Psychologists, and has been active in the leadership of the Ohio School Psychologists Association since 1984. She has published chapters on social competence and professional ethics in the NASP Best Practices series. McNamara’s research focuses on intervention-based school psychological services, and her work in this area has been published in The School Psychology Review, the Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, and Exceptional Children. She has conducted numerous trainings of school psychologists, teachers, and administrators, and consults with school districts regarding implementation of the RTI model. McNamara has served for thirty years as a school psychologist practitioner, supervisor, and faculty member.
Table of Contents

Table of Contents



About the Authors

1. Introduction to RTI and the Case Study Model

Context and History

The Response to Intervention Process

The Case Study Model and Prereferral Intervention


2. Assessment Principles and Practices

Assessment Methods

Assessment at Tier 1

Assessment at Tier 2

Assessing Behavior


3. Facilitating Response to Intervention in Schools

School Psychologist as Systems Change Agent

Evaluating the System

Goal Setting

RTI Implementation


4. Problem Identification

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Behavioral Definition of the Problem

Problem Certification: Establishing the Severity of the Discrepancy Between Actual and Expected Performance

Formulating Intervention Goals

Planning Data-Collection Activities for Baseline Measurement and Progress Monitoring

Assessment of Factors Related to the Problem


5. Problem Analysis

Generating Hypotheses

Primary and Secondary Dependent Variables

Types of Hypotheses

Intervention Selection

Hypothesis Testing


6. Single-Case Design

Single-Case Design and Hypothesis Testing

Single-Case Design and Progress Monitoring

Choosing a Single-Case Design


7. Intervention

Selecting Research-Based Interventions

Intervention Integrity

Linking Interventions to Hypotheses

Characteristics of Effective Academic Interventions

Characteristics of Effective Behavioral Interventions

Targets of Intervention


8. Evaluating Case Study Outcomes

Visual Analysis

Conducting Visual Analyses

Magnitude of Change

Choosing, Calculating, and Interpreting Effect Sizes

Quality of the Outcome: Goal-Attainment Scaling

Choosing Evaluation Methods and Judging Outcomes


9. Using the Case Study to Determine Special Education Eligibility

Disability Versus Eligibility Determination

Responsiveness Versus Resistance

Using Case Study Information for Special Education Eligibility Determination

RTI and Specific Learning Disabilities

Decision Making in Eligibility Determination

Technical Adequacy of Decision-Making Practices

Eligibility Decisions


10. Program Evaluation

Case Study Structure

Case Study Rubric

Case Study: Morgan

Case Study: Reggie

Evaluation of School Psychology Services and Programs

Case Study Fidelity

Intervention Integrity

Magnitude of Change

Goal-Attainment Scaling






Other Titles in: At-Risk | School Counseling | RTI

Price: $41.95
Volume Discounts applied in Shopping Cart

For Instructors

Request Review Copy

When you select 'request review copy', you will be redirected to Sage Publishing (our parent site) to process your request.